Graduate of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, High Academy of Governance under the President of Kazakhstan and Georgetown University (USA).
Till 2002 worked as the member of Supreme Economic Council under the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, at the Administration of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan, served as Chairman of the Agency for Strategic Planning, First Vice-Minister of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2002 -2006, served as Minister of Economy and Budget Planning of Kazakhstan. In 2006 served as CEO of Kazyna Sustainable Development Fund (the state institutions of development).
In 2008 appointed as Head of Administration of the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan. 2008-2011, CEO of Samruk-Kazyna (The Fund, which consolidated all the state companies). In 2011 was appointed as Minister of Economic Development and Trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2012 was appointed as the Deputy Prime Minister of Kazakhstan, where governed the issues of macroeconomics, budget policy, governing of state companies and finance sector, tax and customs regulations, etc. Kelimbetov also served as the Chairman of the Council of Eurasian Economic Commission, where he represented the Republic of Kazakhstan. In 2013 he was appointed as the Chairman of the National Bank of Kazakhstan.
In 2015, Kairat Kelimbetov was appointed as the Governor of Astana International Financial Centre.